fragile ferns (Cystopteris)

Cystopteris is a genus of ferns in the family Cystopteridaceae. These are known generally as bladderferns or fragile ferns. They are found in temperate areas worldwide. This is a very diverse genus and within a species individuals can look quite different, especially in harsh environments where they experience stress and remain small and stunted. Also, they hybridize easily with each other. Identifying an individual can be challenging. In general these are rhizomatous